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Tier 1 Artillery In Depth Info will be posted here.
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Difference between guns, howitzers and mortars (the 3 main artillery pieces of the early and middle 19th century artillery pieces).
The distinction arises from the earlier days of cannon, where you had three basic types: guns, which had long barrels and relatively flat trajectories; howitzers, which had short barrels and low-angled trajectories; and mortars, which had the shortest barrels and high-angled trajectories.

Guns:
As a consequence of trajectory of fire, their ammunition differed. Guns largely employed roundshot, the stereotypical 'cannonball', and would be discharged at just a few degrees above horizontal (not directly horizontal) to give it a little extra range. Roundshot doesn't explode; it instead acts like the world's most evil bowling ball, and the gunners aim for 'grazing shots', wherein the ball bounces off the ground and continues on its merrily destructive way. Against packed formations of men as employed in the days of muskets, the result is hideous.

Howitzers and mortars:
Howitzers and mortars, on the other hand, have trajectories of fire too high to permit bouncing; roundshot from a howitzer or mortar will simply bury itself on the ground of the impact point and go no further, and so they relied on shell. Shells in those days were iron spheres packed with gunpowder. Of course, you have to make these things explode, and so each shell could accept a fuse. A gunner would cut a fuse to a certain length that corresponded to a certain time and hence distance, then when the shell was loaded, the detonation of gunpowder in the barrel lights the fuse. Ideally, the gunner cuts the fuses so that they detonate on impact or moments before impact; cut too long, and there's the chance of the shell being defused (Not a wise thing, though. The foolhardy man tries that. The smart man runs the hell away.).

Gun Howitzers:
As the name suggests, they where cannons that where in between (or a combination of) guns and howitzers and could be very useful to use in the field as it could use the projectiles of both a howitzer and a gun. Most famous one is the 12lb Napoleon Gun.

Projectiles used (global):
So to put all the above info together, we have the normal roundshot (mostly guns), the explosive shell with a fuse (mostly howitzers and mortars). In addition to these, howitzers and guns could also employ canister shot, which is when you load a metal case with as many musket balls as it can hold, or anything small and sharp if balls are in short supply - nails, scrap iron, bits of wire, that sort of thing. Either way, the end result is the world's most evil shotgun; it's short-ranged as hell, but the effect is enough to devastate anything close (For extra evilness, one can double-shot a gun - put a roundshot in first, then slap a canister on top to be a spiteful bugger.). Shrapnel shells where also introduced during the middle of the 19th century and where seen as a replacement of cannister shots, because most cannons after the 1860's where rifled. And canister shot wasn't very useful, as it was destructive for the grooves in the barrel. Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually. They relied almost entirely on the shell's velocity for their lethality.

Trajectory:
The main difference between a gun and a howitzer is traditionally the arc of the round. Howitzer has a low shell velocity and fires with a arc. Gun/Cannon Generally fired at low angles but higher velocity.
An example:
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This is very interesting indeed, because battles need different guns for different situations. For example, mortars can be very useful for sieges, as they fire in an arch of around 45 degrees or more. So it's easy to bombard a target on a fort or castle and also if an enemy unit is on top of a hill or there is a hill in between your army and the enemy army, as you can fire with an arch (also useful to have a howitzer). While normal guns fire straight with a higher velocity and can destroy a lot of units in the battle field (because the projectile bounces of from the terrain). Also useful to destroy walls. Howitzers and mortars (and in some cases gun howitzers) can fire behind the army, while normal guns need to be put on front of the army.
In game, they are represented in the projectiles_tables in the "max_elevation" column. A normal smoothbore gun will have a max. elevation of 5 Degrees. A Howitzer will have a max. elevation of 30 Degrees. A mortar will have a max. elevation of 60 Degrees and a Gun Howitzer, will have a max. elevation of 15 Degrees.

Smoothbore VS Rifled:
While the tier 1 artillery pieces are all smoothbore guns, it is important to know what the difference is between the two. We all know that rifled cannons where more accurate than normal smoothbore ones (look at the detailed info at the "Tier 1 Rifles & Muskets").
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France.

The French possessed many smoothbore guns in the 1850's. While gradually changing to rifled guns, the main artillery where the bronze smoothbore canons. The main issue with normal canons is that you needed different categories to use different shells to fire (also depends on the different environments). You had howitzers, mortars (especially useful for sieges) and normal canons. The main system was the Valée system (adopted in 1828). The system mainly improved the mobility of the artillery train, and simplified maintenance by standardizing limber usage and wheel size, and reducing the number of carriage types to two. It also allowed for the cannoneers to be able to sit on the ammunition chests of the battery itself during transportation, allowing the whole artillery train to move as fast as the infantry or cavalry. Valée also improved the guns themselves slightly, by making them lighter, and with a longer range. The Valée system was used even in the Crimean War of 1854, but was gradually replaced by the  famous and very reliable canon obusier (gun howitzer) or better known as the Napoleon Gun that could fire round shot and/or explosive shells as main shell.

Light Guns:
8lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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8lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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8lb Canon Colonial (Summer Dress).
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8lb Canon Colonial (Winter Dress).
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Heavy Guns:
15cm Howitzer (Summer Dress).
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15cm Howitzer (Winter Dress).
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12lb Gun Howitzer "Napoleon Gun" (Summer Dress).
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12lb Gun Howitzer "Napoleon Gun" (Winter Dress).
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 Siege Guns:
8inch Mortar (Summer Dress).
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8inch Mortar (Winter Dress).
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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

The British had guns of different calibre. Just as the French and Western nations, most of British guns where smoothbore during the 1850's. While military technology was going in to a leap, the leap really started around the end of the 1850's. During the Crimean War the British used normal field guns of different calibres, like 6pdr, 9pdr. Howitzers of 12pdr, 24pdr. Position guns of 18pdr and 32pdr and Siege guns of 32pdr and even 64pdr. Mortars and the famous British Rockets.

Light Guns:
6lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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6lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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6lb Colonial Canon (Summer Dress).
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6lb Colonial Canon (Winter Dress).
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Heavy Guns:
12lb Howitzer (Summer Dress).
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12lb Howitzer (Winter Dress).
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Siege Guns:
8inch Mortar (Summer Dress).
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8inch Mortar (Winter Dress).
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Rockets (Summer Dress).
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Rockets (Winter Dress).
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United States of America.

The USA introduced the French Valée system during the 1850's. Actually, most of the guns where French imported guns or made in the in the Concord (Massachusetts) canon foundry (or in other canon foundries in the country). The most used one was the Napoleon Gun (howitzer). It was very reliable and could fire round shots and (explosive) shells. The gun was so much appreciated, that it was the most used in the ACW. Just as the other Powers, most of the guns where smoothbore guns (until gradually changed in the end of the 1850's).

Light Guns:
6lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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6lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Colonial 6lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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Colonial 6lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Heavy Guns:
12lb Howitzer (Summer Dress).
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12lb Howitzer (Winter Dress).
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12lb Gun Howitzer "Napoleon Gun" (Summer Dress).
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12lb Gun Howitzer "Napoleon Gun" (Winter Dress).
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Siege Guns:
8inch Mortar (Summer Dress).
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8inch Mortar (Winter Dress).
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Prussia (and the German states).

Just as most of the (Western) nations, the Prussians had smoothbore guns. This will change especially in the 1860's, where the guns become rifled breech loaded guns and one of the best guns available (the Krupp guns).

Light Guns:
6lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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6lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Colonial 6lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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Colonial 6lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Heavy Guns:
10lb Howitzer (Summer Dress).
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10lb Howitzer (Winter Dress).
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12lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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12lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Siege Guns:
10lb Mortar (Summer Dress).
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10lb Mortar (Winter Dress).
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Russia.

Russian guns in the 1850's where (most) smoothbore guns. While the 1850's started with a lot of military changes, many nations still had smoothbore guns. Most of the guns in the Crimean War where smoothbore and used by both sides.

Light Guns:
6lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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6lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Colonial 6lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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Colonial 6lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Medium Guns:
9lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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9lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Heavy Guns:
12lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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12lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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The Netherlands.

The Dutch had smoothbore guns as it's main artillery. This will change however in the next decade.

Light Guns:
6lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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6lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Colonial 6lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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Colonial 6lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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Heavy Guns:
12lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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12lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Spain

Just as most nations from that period (1850's), the Spanish had smoothbore guns as it's main artillery.

Light Guns:
6lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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6lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Colonial 6lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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Colonial 6lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Heavy Guns:
12lb Canon (Summer Dress).
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12lb Canon (Winter Dress).
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Siege Guns:
8inch Mortar (Summer Dress).
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8inch Mortar (Winter Dress).
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Portugal

Just as many other (Western) nations. The smoothbore guns where the standard artillery of it's time.

Light Guns:
6lb Colonial Field Cannon (Summer Dress).
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6lb Colonial Field Cannon (Winter Dress).
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6lb Field Cannon (Summer Dress).
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6lb Field Cannon (Winter Dress).
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Heavy Guns:
12lb Field Cannon (Summer Dress).
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12lb Field Cannon (Winter Dress).
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