Prussia (and the German States):
Prussia in the 1850's lacked the funds to really improve it's muskets and rifles. Even if military technology improved significantly during that timeframe (like the rifled conversion of smoothbore muskets), Prussia lacked behind just after the 1848 revolution. It took some time when it changed, but during the appointment of von Moltke, things changed significantly at the end of the 1850's with the introduction of the breech loaded Dreyse needle gun. Potzdam model 1839 Smoothbore musket.
The Dreyse-Zündnadel factory produced only 30,000 rifles (Dryse Needle rifle) a year and most of the Prussian infantry in the 1850s was still equipped with the obsolete 1839 Model caplock musket, whose ballistic performance was clearly inferior to the French Minié rifle.
Prussian Model 1809 Infantry Musket (aka "Potsdam Musket") .71 caliber, percussion conversion, with bayonet.
Prussia began large-scale conversion from flintlock to percussion circa 1839, becoming the M1809/39, but research indicates conversions may have started as early as 1831.
These weapons saw service during the Napoleonic Wars and many of these were acquired during the American Civil War and were used by both sides during that conflict; this would also be considered correct for revolutionary Texas.
The name "Potsdam" comes from the guns made at the Prussian Potsdam arsenal, but other manufacturing locations noted are Saarn, Neisse, Suhl, and Dresden.
Caliber: .71in Round Ball
Overall length: 57in
Barrel length: 41,25in long barrel
Smoothbore (Muzzle loaded) Vereinsgewehr model 1857 Rifled musket.
The Vereinsgewehr Rifle, comissioned and produced in 1857, was a rifled musket designed across three Germanic states: Baden, Hesse and Württemberg.
The Vereinsgewehr 1857 (as it is also named) was the successor in these German states to the Modele 1777 Musket from France.
Country of origin: Baden, Hesse, Wurttemburg
Manufacturer(s): Koniglich Wurtembergische Gewehrfabrik
Year(s) designed: 1857
Weapon type: Rifled Musket
Caliber: .54in (13.7mm) Minie Ball
Action: Percussion lock
Overall length: 55in (1.4m)
Barrel length: 39in (0.99m)
Weight: 10.1lb (4.6kg)
Magazine/Cylinder capacity: 1 (Muzzle loaded)
Maximum effective range: 1,000yards (910m)
Used by: Austria, Baden, Hesse, Wurttemburg
Feed system: Muzzle-loaded (Rifled Barrel), Minie bullet
Rate of fire: User dependent; usually 2 to 3 rounds every 1 minute Dreyse Needle model 1841 Rifled musket
The Dreyse needle-gun (German Zündnadelgewehr, which translates roughly as "ignition needle rifle" was a military breechloading rifle, famous as the main infantry weapon of the Prussians, who accepted it for service in 1841 as the "leichtes Perkussionsgewehr Model 1841" ("light percussion rifle Model 1841"), with the name chosen to hide the revolutionary nature of the new weapon.
The name "Zündnadelgewehr"/"needle-gun" comes from its needle-like firing pin, which passed through the paper cartridge case to strike a percussion cap at the bullet base.
The Dreyse rifle was also the first breech-loading rifle to use the bolt action to open and close the chamber, executed by turning and pulling a bolt handle.
It has a rate of fire of about 10–12 rounds per minute.
Accepted for service in 1841, it was used in combat for the first time during the German revolutions of 1848–49.
Many German states subsequently adopted the weapon.
The gun proved its combat superiority in street fighting during the May Uprising in Dresden in 1849, but the Prussian Army's low level of funding resulted in only 90 battalions being equipped with the weapon in 1855.
The Dreyse-Zündnadel factory produced only 30,000 rifles a year and most of the Prussian infantry in the 1850s was still equipped with the obsolete 1839 Model caplock musket, whose ballistic performance was clearly inferior to the French Minié rifle.
Weight: 4.7 kg (10.4 lb)
Length: 142 cm (56 in)
Barrel length: 91cm (36 in)
Cartridge: Acorn-shaped lead bullet in paper cartridge
Action: Breech-loading bolt action
Rate of fire: 6 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity: 305 m/s (1,000 ft/s)
Effective firing range: 600 m (650 yd)
Feed system: Single-shot
Sights: V-notch and front post iron sights