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Tier 1 Rifles and Muskets In Depth Info will be posted here.
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Smoothbore VS Rifled muskets (see PDF).
There is a nice article that talks about the difference between rifled muskets and smoothbore muskets (made by Justin Stanage and Communicated by: Dr. Donald B. Marty Department of History). I will just take some examples about the different in ranges (effective range and max. range).

The relative accuracy of the rifle-musket can not be denied. At longer ranges, beyond about 100 yards, the lone man with a smoothbore musket is not likely to hit a lone enemy target. At the same time, the rifle-musket can hit easily at those ranges, assuming the man firing the weapon is proficient in its use. To illustrate this, data and photographs from 1860 comparative firing of the "New Rifled Musket, Calibre .58" (Fuller 57) which might have been the model 1861 Springfield, and the "Smoothbore Musket, calibre .69" (Ibid 57) which might have been the 1816 model but was more likely the 1842 model, is available in the national archives. The author, Claude Fuller, used this data to write The Rifted Musket (see targets).

Tests been done in the field (Rifled Musket):
At 100 yards (ca. 91 meters), the Springfield hit between 48 and 50 times out of 50 shots per target, getting less than 50 hits only once. Accuracy fell off, though; at 200 yards (ca. 183 meters), the hit rate ranges from 41 down to 32. At 300 yards (ca. 275 meters) accuracy is worse, between 23 and 29 hitting the target. At 500 yards (ca. 457 meters) the hit rate was between 12 and 21. A moderate wind existed during all firings of the Springfield (Ibid 59-65).

Tests been done in the field (Smoothbore Musket):
The smoothbore musket was tested in two categories, with and without buckshot. At 100 yards (ca. 91 meters), again with 50 shots of ball being fired, between 37 and 43 hit, a hit rate that was not as good as the Springfield, but respectable. At 200 yards (ca. 183 meters), the accuracy fell dramatically, with only 18 to 24 hitting. At 300 yards (ca. 275 meters), accuracy was even worse, with no more than 9 shots hitting the target.

Summarize:
Assuming that the range of 100 yards was typical for combat firings, a comparison can be made, the smoothbore musket firing ball alone was not much worse than the rifle-musket. With buckshot the effectiveness of the smoothbore was much greater. Beyond that, accuracy with either load dropped considerably. At 200 yards, some of the buckshot failed to penetrate the targets. This meant that the number of seriously damaging hits from buckshot would be very small. This demonstrates the relative usefulness of the two arms. At some point beyond 100 yards, the rifle-musket would be better because in the hands of skilled troops it was more accurate. At 100 yards and closer, the smoothbore would have been much more deadly when firing "buck and ball." If it was firing just ball ammo, then the rifle-musket was again the superior rifle/musket type, because all or almost all of its shots hit at 100 yards.

In Game:
There are many ways how projectiles work. First you have the individual projectile you could say (defined in the projectile tables).
First, you have the "effective_range" column. There you can add the range where the unit start firing (aka the red elipse object you see on the battlefield). If we follow the pattern above, we could give it it's max. range of 500 yards (ca. 457 meters). But this mean that it has higher ranges than some old bronze cannons (not really interested for gameplay reasons). And the vanilla Shogun2 game has a small battlefield map (while in my mod i increased the map by 2km to 2km, This is also the reason why i will use meters and not yards in game). So for game sake and to add some realism, rifled muskets will have a max. range of 275 meters. But...we must understand that the units start firing from that range, so we need to see that we follow the same pattern as the historic info above (approx.). This means that at it's max range, the projectiles miss greatly (some can hit, but not that much) it's target. The way we can achieve this, is by subtracting an amount by distance or we could say, the further i fire from, the lesser accurate it becomes. In the _kv_rules there is a global modifier for that (by global i mean for all projectiles). First we need to determine where is it's 50% target hit distance. We can find that in the "missile_distance_for_half_chance_hit". I put it to value 100 (meters). So this means that at 100 meters, the projectile has 50% chance to hit the target. The reason why i did that, is because it's a global value for all projectiles, and not all projectiles (or muskets) have 275 meter range. But now we find the "projectile_damage_distance_multiplier" where we create a value to be multiplied with, and the result will be subtracted to actually hitting the target. So the further it goes, the higher the value will be to subtract, the lower the chance to hit the target. I have set this to value 30, as i find that it had the best result.
But remember, this is all relative. You need to consider a lot more info or stats for the game, like the marksmanship of the unit (very important, as the article talked about it also. The better trained units, the better they shoot), the damage value (found in the projectiles tables), the defense value of the unit, does the unit has an armor value, etc....you need to consider them all to have the best result in game.

Smoothbore and Rifled muskets have the same max. range in the game (275 meters/300 yards). This max. range is when the unit start firing (the red elipse object is that max. range).
Smoothbore muskets have a damage value of 0.45. A velocity (coming out of the muzzle) of 200m/sec. A marksmanship penalty of -15. A base reload of 20. A base misfire of 40. Weather and environment also plays a role (medium).
Rifled muskets have a damage value of 0.55. A velocity (coming out of the muzzle) of 300m/sec. A marksmanship penalty of -10. A base reload of 20. A base misfire of 30. Weather and environment also plays a role (medium).
Remember, even if they can fire at a range of 275m, the max range has a lower hit range. Every meter, the hit value gets lower.
Projectile values can't be seen in game!

Other important stats that are related to the way projectiles hit a target (Global values):
Those global stats are for all types of projectiles and is part of the core game (based in the _kv_rules table).
You have a global misfire of which type of cap you use (matchlock cap has a misfire of 60%, flintlock cap has a misfire of 30% and percussion cap has a misfire of 15%).
At a 100 meters you have 50% to hit the target, so the closer the enemy unit is, the more chance you hit the target.
The weather has a big influence when firing to a target (heavy rain has only 50% accuracy, heavy fog has only a 40% accuracy and heavy snow has only 30% accuracy visibility). medium rain has only 70% accuracy, medium fog has only 60% of accuracy and medium snow has only 50% accuracy. light rain has only 90% of accuracy, light fog has only 80% of accuracy and light snow has only 70% of accuracy). So yes, fighting in the snow is the worse weather type to do a battle.
A 0.25 multiplier will be added to every individual unit's marksmanship value (based in the unit_stats_land). So if a unit has a base marksmanship of 10, then this value will be multiplied with 0.25 (= 2.5) and will be added to kill chance of the target. So off course, the higher the marksmanship, the better they will hit the target. This can also be trained, so the more experience your unit will have (they are veterans), the higher the marksmanship value (bonus values to marksmanship) becomes.
A 0.8 multiplier for armor units. If a unit has an armor (like some traditional units have), this has also on influence on hitting the target. The base value is based in the unit_stats. So if the base value of the unit is 1, than we multiply by 0.8 (= 0.8), than the result value will be subtracted from the kill chance (hitting the target).
There is also a base value for as a multiplier to subtract from kill chance when units have shields (based in the unit_stats_land). Same way as armor works. Didn't used it as units in the mod have no shields (at least not for now).
Units get also a reload penalty when firing in some weather type (rain and snow). Gunpowder units get a global reload penalty of -3 when reloading in rain and -5 when reloading in snow.
This is approx.. the important global projectile values. All things can still be changed off course. But those values give me the best result.
The global values can't be seen in game!

Other important stats that are related to the way projectiles hit a target (Local values):
Most of the units have individual stats that makes them unique from other units (Most are based in the unit_stats_land table).
In those local stats you can add the base armor value, marksmanship value, reload skill value, which firing mechanism they use (or which cap. Found in the _kv_rules table), which projectile/musket type they use (found in the projectile table), amount of ammo value, etc...
Those are the stats that you see in game!

Other important stats that are related to the way projectiles hit a target (Local values: By experience or by training):
When units fight a lot and become veterans, they get experience points and get exp. ranks (defined in the unit_stats_land_experience_bonuses). Every rank gives you an extra bonus like reload skill, marksmanship, etc...
Those will stats will be seen in game (green addition).


Elevation (defined in projectile tables):
Yes, some bullets have an elevation (or arch) when firing and are important in game. The lower the elevation (value), the more difficult is to fire towards an enemy target when the terrain is elevated (or units just can't fire!). How do we realize it in game (to make it realistic as possible)? Well, the article again helps us out: The bullet fired by a rifle-musket would arc to various degrees, depending upon the sighting that the soldier made. If a soldier were to set his sights on a man 300 yards away and he was firing kneeling, then the shot would reach its zenith at 83 inches above the ground. From a sight line at 40 inches above the ground, this means that the shot would rise 43 inches. Assuming a 5 foot tall man, or 60 inches, he would be in danger for 75 yards and then the bullet would pass over his head, not becoming a threat again until the target was about 250 yards away from the shooter. At this point, soldiers were in danger for about another 110 yards. "Sighted for 500 yards, at midrange the bullet would pass well overhead of a horseman, with the danger spaces quite small." (Coggins 38-39).
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In the projectile tables, in the "max_elevation" column, there you can add the values in which way the bullet fire (or comes out) out of the muzzle of the rifle/musket (and/or canon) and are represented in degrees.
After testing it in game, the best result for smoothbore muskets (have a slight arch) is around 5 Degrees elevation and rifled muskets, around 10 Degrees elevation. This means that rifled muskets will easier handle any elevated terrain than smoothbore muskets (in a slight way).
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France:

Minié pattern 1851 Rifled musket.
The French have learned a lot after the Algeria conquest of 1830 - 1847. The Arab/Algerian smoothbore muskets outclassed the French one in accuracy and range. The barrels of the muskets where longer and because of that, had a better accuracy and range. This changed with the invention of the Minié ball by captain Claude-Étienne Minié in 1847. The bullet was designed to allow rapid muzzle loading of rifles, and was an innovation that brought about the widespread use of the rifle as the main battlefield weapon for individual soldiers. The Minié rifle belonged to the category of rifled muskets. The rifle used a conical-cylindrical soft lead bullet, slightly smaller than the barrel bore, with three exterior grease-filled grooves and a conical hollow in its base. When fired, the expanding gas forcibly pushed on the base of the bullet, deforming it to engage the rifling. This provided spin for accuracy, a better seal for consistent velocity and longer range, and cleaning of barrel detritus. This invention changed drastically in musket warfare. Most of the Western nations changed gradually to the same technology, as it was superior towards it's smoothbore counterparts.

The Minié Rifle/Musket Pattern 1851 was the main rifle/musket of the French Army during the 1850's. The Minié rifle used a percussion lock.
Specifications :
Country of origin: France
Manufacturer(s): Charleville-Mezieres, Ardennes
Designer(s): Claude-Etienne Minie
Year(s) designed: 1848-1851
Weapon type: Rifled Musket
Caliber: .58in (14.7mm) Minie Ball
Action: Percussion lock
Overall length: 58in (1.47m)
Barrel length: 38in (0.97m)
Weight: 10lb 9oz (4.8kg)
Magazine/Cylinder capacity: 1 (Muzzle loaded)
Maximum effective range: 600yards (550m)
Rate of fire: User dependent; usually 2 to 3 rounds every 1 minute
Feed system: Muzzle-loaded (Rifled Barrel), Minie bullet

Musket_p1851.png 
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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland:

Enfield pattern 1853 Rifled musket.
The British have benefited a lot when becoming allies with the French Empire of Napoleon III. When Claude-Étienne Minié invented the Minié ball and later with the creation of the new rifled p1851 Minié rifled musket, the British used the same technology for their own rifled musket. The Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket (also known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield, P53 Enfield, and Enfield rifle-musket) was a .577 calibre Minié-type muzzle-loading rifled musket, used by the British Empire from 1853 to 1867. 
With war breaking out between the Russians and the Turks, Britain realized that it was only a matter of time before they would be drawn into the conflict. The British Army was in the midst of a significant weapons transformation from smoothbore muskets to rifled muskets. While three of the four divisions of the field army in the Crimea had been supplied with the pattern 1851 Minie rifle-musket, the other regiments of the army around the Empire still carried the 1842 pattern smoothbore musket. By the end of 1853, the Enfield rifle-musket was approved by the War Department for the army and was put into production. The Enfield saw extensive action in the Crimean War, 1854–1856, with the first Enfield rifles being issued to troops from February 1855.

The Enfield Rifle/Musket Pattern 1853 was the main rifle/musket of the British Army during the 1850's. The Enfield rifle used a percussion lock.
Specifications :
Weight: 9 lb 5 oz (4.2 kg), unloaded
Length: 55in (139.7cm)
Calibre: .577 Ball
Action: Percussion Cap
Rate of fire: User dependent, Usually 3+ rounds a minute
Muzzle velocity: 900 ft/s (270 m/s)
Maximum range: 2000 yd (1828.8m)
Feed system: Muzzle-loading (Rifled Barrel), Minie bullet
Sights: adjustable ramp rear sights, Fixed-post front sights

musket_p1853.png 
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United States of America:

Springfield model 1855 Rifled musket.
Just as many of the Western Powers, the USA converted or created many rifled muskets. They saw the benefits of this new military technology and used them for their own armies. The first regulated (rifled) musket was the Springfield Model 1855 Rifled musket. It exploited the advantages of the new conical Minié ball, which could be deadly at over 1,000 yards (that's really the MAX range).
About 60,000 of these rifles were made, and it was a standard infantry weapon for Union and Confederates alike, until the Model 1861 supplanted it, obviating the use of the insufficiently waterproof Maynard tape primer.

Specifications:
Weight: 9lb (4.1kg)
Length: 56.0in (1,420mm)
Barrel length: 40.0in (1,020 mm)
Cartridge: Paper cartridge, Minié ball undersized to reduce the effects of powder fouling and for the skirt to grip the grooves when firing.
Caliber: 0.58 (14.7320mm)
Barrels: 3 grooves
Action: Maynard tape primer
Rate of fire: User dependent; usually 2 to 3 rounds every 1 minute
Muzzle velocity: 1,000 to 1,200 ft/s (300 to 370 m/s)
Effective firing range: 200 to 300 yd (180 to 270 m)
Maximum firing range: 800 to 1,000 yd (730 to 910 m)
Feed system: Muzzle-loaded (Rifled Barrel), Minie bullet
Sights: Open sights/flip-up leaf sights
Produced: 1856–1860.
musket_p1855.png 
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Prussia (and the German States):

Prussia in the 1850's lacked the funds to really improve it's muskets and rifles. Even if military technology improved significantly during that timeframe (like the rifled conversion of smoothbore muskets), Prussia lacked behind just after the 1848 revolution. It took some time when it changed, but during the appointment of von Moltke, things changed significantly at the end of the 1850's with the introduction of the breech loaded Dreyse needle gun. 

Potzdam model 1839 Smoothbore musket.
The Dreyse-Zündnadel factory produced only 30,000 rifles (Dryse Needle rifle) a year and most of the Prussian infantry in the 1850s was still equipped with the obsolete 1839 Model caplock musket, whose ballistic performance was clearly inferior to the French Minié rifle.
Prussian Model 1809 Infantry Musket (aka "Potsdam Musket") .71 caliber, percussion conversion, with bayonet.
Prussia began large-scale conversion from flintlock to percussion circa 1839, becoming the M1809/39, but research indicates conversions may have started as early as 1831.
These weapons saw service during the Napoleonic Wars and many of these were acquired during the American Civil War and were used by both sides during that conflict; this would also be considered correct for revolutionary Texas.
The name "Potsdam" comes from the guns made at the Prussian Potsdam arsenal, but other manufacturing locations noted are Saarn, Neisse, Suhl, and Dresden.

Specifications:
Caliber: .71in Round Ball
Overall length: 57in
Barrel length: 41,25in long barrel
Smoothbore (Muzzle loaded)
musket_m1839.png 
Vereinsgewehr model 1857 Rifled musket.
The Vereinsgewehr Rifle, comissioned and produced in 1857, was a rifled musket designed across three Germanic states: Baden, Hesse and Württemberg.
The Vereinsgewehr 1857 (as it is also named) was the successor in these German states to the Modele 1777 Musket from France.

Specifications :
Country of origin: Baden, Hesse, Wurttemburg
Manufacturer(s): Koniglich Wurtembergische Gewehrfabrik
Year(s) designed: 1857
Weapon type: Rifled Musket
Caliber: .54in (13.7mm) Minie Ball
Action: Percussion lock
Overall length: 55in (1.4m)
Barrel length: 39in (0.99m)
Weight: 10.1lb (4.6kg)
Magazine/Cylinder capacity: 1 (Muzzle loaded)
Maximum effective range: 1,000yards (910m)
Used by: Austria, Baden, Hesse, Wurttemburg
Feed system: Muzzle-loaded (Rifled Barrel), Minie bullet
Rate of fire: User dependent; usually 2 to 3 rounds every 1 minute
musket_m1857.png 
Dreyse Needle model 1841 Rifled musket.
The Dreyse needle-gun (German Zündnadelgewehr, which translates roughly as "ignition needle rifle" was a military breechloading rifle, famous as the main infantry weapon of the Prussians, who accepted it for service in 1841 as the "leichtes Perkussionsgewehr Model 1841" ("light percussion rifle Model 1841"), with the name chosen to hide the revolutionary nature of the new weapon.
The name "Zündnadelgewehr"/"needle-gun" comes from its needle-like firing pin, which passed through the paper cartridge case to strike a percussion cap at the bullet base.
The Dreyse rifle was also the first breech-loading rifle to use the bolt action to open and close the chamber, executed by turning and pulling a bolt handle.
It has a rate of fire of about 10–12 rounds per minute.
Accepted for service in 1841, it was used in combat for the first time during the German revolutions of 1848–49.
Many German states subsequently adopted the weapon.
The gun proved its combat superiority in street fighting during the May Uprising in Dresden in 1849, but the Prussian Army's low level of funding resulted in only 90 battalions being equipped with the weapon in 1855.
The Dreyse-Zündnadel factory produced only 30,000 rifles a year and most of the Prussian infantry in the 1850s was still equipped with the obsolete 1839 Model caplock musket, whose ballistic performance was clearly inferior to the French Minié rifle.

Specifications:
Weight: 4.7 kg (10.4 lb)
Length: 142 cm (56 in)
Barrel length: 91cm (36 in)
Cartridge: Acorn-shaped lead bullet in paper cartridge
Action: Breech-loading bolt action
Rate of fire: 6 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity: 305 m/s (1,000 ft/s)
Effective firing range: 600 m (650 yd)
Feed system: Single-shot
Sights: V-notch and front post iron sights
musket_m1841.png 
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Russia.

A factor that contributed to Russia’s eventual surrender in the Crimean war was the use of inferior and antiquated weapons. In the late 1840s, a new Minié rifle was developed by the French, and quickly adopted by the British in 1851. This rifle had the key advantage of having a longer range than previous rifles, roughly 800 yards (MAX. Range!), compared to the 200 yards provided by the old smooth-bore, muzzle-loading muskets. Incidentally, it was these inferior muskets that the Russian army had possession of, which put them at a distinct disadvantage to their Allied counterparts. In fact, as the old musket could only fire around two rounds a minute at best, about half the rate of the new modern rifle, the Russians were forced to rely secondarily on the bayonet, providing that they could even get close enough to their enemies to use it. Not only did Russia not have the most up-to-date weaponry in their possession, they also had only three weapons factories in the country with which to make the muskets they did have. This meant that there was no way that Russia would be able to produce enough weapons to accommodate her forces in the Crimea, and was instead forced to order additional weapons from the United States in 1854. Unfortunately, these did not arrive until after Russia was forced to surrender. Therefore, the picture becomes a bit clearer as to why Russia had difficulties in making her dream of victory in the Crimea come to fruition.

Pekhotnoye Ruzhyo Obraztsa 1845 goda smoothbore musket.
Infantry Musket M1845 (Pekhotnoye Ruzhyo Obraztsa 1845 goda).
Was the main Russian infantry weapon during the Eastern (Crimean) War.
It was designed after French M1842 musket and manufactured until late 1850's.
In 1852 the musket was slightly modified. Two shorter versions, Dragoon and Cossack, were intended for mounted troops.

Specifications:
(1845 - ?)
State: Russian Empire
Type: Muzzleloading percussion cap musket (Smoothbore Barrel), Round bullet.
Caliber: .70 (18 mm) Round ball.
Length: 72.8 in (185 cm) with bayonet
Barrel Length: 42.7 in (108.4 cm)
Weight: 9.5 lbs (4.3 kg); 10.4 lbs (4.7 kg) with bayonet
Capacity: 1
Fire Modes: Single Shot
Maximum Range: 150 to 200 yards (137 m to 180 m).
Rate of Fire: 1 round per minute
Muzzle velocity: Uncertain at Present
musket_m1845.png 
The M1854 Rifled musket.
The model 1854 was introduced during the end of the Crimean War and based of the American Springfield model 1855 rifled musket. And not yet fully implemented for it's main army (will be for Elite units only).

Specifications:
(1854 - approx. 1860's)
State: Russian Empire
Type: Muzzle loading percussion cap musket (Rifled Barrel), Minie bullet.
Fire Modes: Single Shot
musket_m1854.png 
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The Netherlands.

When losing it's southern province 1839 (Belgium), it also lost a lot of it's military capability to produce arms. Most of it's military factories where based in Belgium. This means that the Netherlands had to find a way to start from scratch, a new way of making muskets and such. One such ways was trough import (from the British for example) or another way was to start a musket factory based in the Netherlands. This started with Petrus Stevens, a business man of Maastricht with an approval of the Ministry of War and Colonies to start creating muskets for the Dutch army. First by converting them from flintlocks to percussion locks (the M1842 smoothbore musket) and later on with more modern technologies implemented from other musket and rifle brands.

Stevens Model 1842 Smoothbore musket.
This smoothbore musket was a conversion musket from an earlier flintlock version.
musket_m1842.png 
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Spain.

Spain was in the middle of a musket conversion in the 1850's and switched gradually to the French Minié musket (pattern 1851). While most of the troops still possessed the obsolete smoothbore model 1757 musket, this wasn't the main issue of this musket (as other nations also still had smoothbore muskets). The main issue was that it was still using a flintlock and not a percussion cap as most smoothbore muskets had in that time. Spain was in a middle of a financial crisis and this also reflected in it's modernization of the army. In this case, the elite-and light units will have the Minié rifled musket, while normal line infantry will have the model 1757 smoothbore musket.

Model 1752 (1757 conversion) Smoothbore musket.
The first standardized long gun of the Spanish Army became the Model 1752, a musket proving typically conventional for the period. The weapon maintained a long service life under the Spanish crown and was deployed to its various frontline forces across the various Spanish holdings. The Model 1752 was in widespread circulation up until the middle of the 1850s by which time more and more fighting forces were adopting more modern "Minie ball" long guns (categorized as "rifled muskets").

The Model 1752 Musket featured design qualities associated with this period of land-based warfare - these were long, heavy guns made primarily with a single-piece wooden stock housing the metal barrel and works of the action. As muzzle-loading weapons, they were loaded down the muzzle end of the gun which necessitated use of a ramrod held in a channel under the barrel. The stock was affixed to the barrel at multiple points, usually two brass barrel bands and a cap at front. The action was of the flintlock method requiring a piece of flint rock to be seated in a vice and cocked rearwards prior to firing. Additional steps included the loading of gunpowder in the frizzen (pan) as well as gunpowder down the barrel prior to inserting the ball ammunition. The wooden stock incorporated a straight grip handle that was slightly angled downwards and extended to become the shoulder support (or shoulder stock). Sighting was through fixtures along the top of the weapon. The trigger was set within an oblong ring under the action as normal. The action was unique, known as the "Miquelet Lock", which reworked some of the accepted design practices of the flintlock action - mainly at the mainspring and hammer.
The pattern of 1752 was the original Spanish Army rifle and this was then followed by the patterns of 1755 ad 1757.
musket_model1757.png 
Minié pattern 1851 Rifled musket.
See the French Rifle info tab.
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Portugal.

The Portuguese where in the same situation as the Spanish in the 1850's. Devastated by the Napoleonic Wars and after internal struggles, civil wars and lost one or more of it's colonies, the funding of it's armies was lacking behind the Western counterparts. Using still obsolete smoothbore flintlock muskets from Spain, it did had some rifled Enfield p1853 muskets (trough they're alliance with the British).

Model 1752 (1757 conversion) Smoothbore musket.
see the Spanish Muskets info tab.

Enfield pattern 1853 Rifled musket.
see the British Musket info tab.


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